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The transition between the Eagle Ford and Buda Limestone is indicated by abrupt changes in rock properties, which made this surface easily correlatable across the region. The conformable contact between the lower and the upper members of the Eagle Ford Formation is reliably based on a drastic increase in the gamma ray API Figure 8.

Across the Hawkville trough, this marker is one of the few that can be consistently correlated.

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The character of the gamma increase differs from well to well, but occurs roughly in the middle of the formation. The resistivity and density-porosity logs proved less helpful for correlation purposes because of the variation of fluids present and porosity values. There was no distinct change in formation resistivity and porosity between the upper and lower units.

The top of Eagle Ford is the third correlative marker across the Hawkville trough that can be recognized with confidence based on gamma ray and resistivity response. However, the section at the top of the Eagle Ford was removed post-deposition in parts of the field, causing some uncertainty. Donovan and Staerker identified a transitional unit Langtry Member above the Eagle Ford that was not consistently identified within the study area.

Instead, this transitional unit was categorized as the Upper Eagle Ford. The transition from the overlying Austin Chalk and Eagle Ford is variably expressed in log analysis. However, thickness across the mile long trough varies greatly over short lateral distances. From LaS-9 to LaS10 4. A structure map based off of tops gathered from well data of the Eagle Ford shows a southeasterly dip direction Figure Strike and dip oriented cross sections, as well as a regional cross section across the Hawkville Trough highlight those variations in separate units, as well as overall thickness Figures The red line is the interface between the upper and lower Eagle Ford members.

The axis of the trough is closer to the Edwards Reef than the Sligo Reef. The sand body is clearly recognized in log response by a API gamma response and ohm resistivity, and will be discussed further in the discussion section Booth et al. The UEF thins rapidly to roughly half its maximum thickness moving away from the axis Figure There is also thinning to the northeast in McMullen County Figure The axis is closer to the Edwards reef than the Sligo Reef. It reaches its maximum thickness in LaS-1 at ft Table 1.

Thinning is drastic as you move away from the center of the axis. This thinning is due to a combination of erosion along the upper boundary, as well as additional accommodation associated with growth faults. Well numbers increase from west to east by county. The entire section is trough shaped with an axis roughly parallel to bedding strike, and shows drastic thinning within miles of the axis.

Values are based primarily from well data, and seismic was also used to fill in gaps between wells with known values. Similar to the upper and total section, this unit is trough-shaped and the axis of the trough thins laterally from the center. Faults were picked using seismic data. There is extensive faulting in McMullen County. Most of the faults post-date deposition of the Eagle Ford Formation, with the exception of a few growth faults in McMullen County that contribute to thickness and section variation over short lateral distances.

Map created in SMT Cross-section is hung on the top of Eagle Ford and vertical axis is shown with black line in feet. Black line indicates vertical axis in feet cross section created in Petra, map image created in SMT. The 3D seismic in Hawkville field was shot and processed over the course of several years and broken up into phases. The Patron Grande survey covers Hawkville Field and encompasses approximately square miles www. The 3D data demonstrates a complex network of faults and erosional features throughout the Hawkville Tough Figures 14, 20, and The Eagle Ford and Buda Formations were picked based on tops seen while drilling, and then tied into the seismic, top for top personal communication with Marie Henry-Geophysicist, Petrohawk The method most commonly used here is a Time Depth Chart, which is used to convert TVD values into time so the wellbore is plotted in seismic.

The Buda Formation has a high velocity and density, making it the most reliable top that can be picked in the Hawkville trough; this yields high acoustic impedance. Acoustic impedance indicates how much sound pressure is generated by the vibration of molecules in a particular medium at a given frequency; locally, this shows up as a strong peak personal communication Jarrett Pierce, Geophysicist Figure 20 and In Figure 20 highlighted in purple , an extra peak can be seen on the left side of the figure between the top of Eagle Ford and the top of Buda.

In seismic data this peak only occurs when total thickness reaches greater than feet. Moving towards the right side of the figure, this strong peak disappears and the upper Eagle Ford becomes truncated. Figure 21, from McMullen County, demonstrates the additional accommodation seen on the downthrown side of growth faults. This image shows the appearance of the strong peak, discussed above, that occurs when total thickness is greater than feet.

This thickness continues to increase down dip as another growth fault is encountered. The total thickness Figure 22 is a seismic cross section that was generated by flattening the data on the Buda Horizon and observing the horizon just above the Eagle Ford showing drastic lateral thinning across the profile. Amplitude extraction maps, or time slices, taken from 3D seismic volumes reveal high-resolution dispersal patterns and associated systems tracts on geologic time surfaces Li, Flattening was achieved through SMTs seismic module and subtracted the influence of regional dip in order to properly image the feature seen above solid yellow line in Figure The purpose of a structure-removed time slice is to be able to image amplitude variations in map view affecting a greater regional extent that occurred at or near a geologic time-equivalent horizon.

There is minor faulting associated with section thickness. From northwest to southeast the thickness of the Eagle Ford changes from thick to thin as noted where the extra peak is present. The Channel Incision is evident on this section of 3D data. Field of view for figures are approximately 7 miles.

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Vertical axis is recorded in time roughly 0. Note additional accommodation on downthrown side of growth faults. The complex structural framework in McMullen County is the main contributor to thickness variations within the Eagle Ford Formation. Figure Northwest-southeast seismic screen shot that shows flattening on the Buda Limestone blue line and generating the time slice through the horizon above the Eagle Ford Formation in southeast LaSalle County yellow line.

This image shows that in less than 5 miles the Eagle Ford thins by feet.

In some areas of the Hawkville Trough the contact is found to be abrupt Figure 23 , and in other areas it is more gradational Figure However, it is accepted that the two formations are separated by a major unconformity and K72 sequence boundary Petrohawk, ; Donovan and Staerker, The rip-up clasts, skeletal limestones, and soft sediment deformation features indicates more proximal facies Petrohawk, The proximal facies had lower TOC values and higher amounts of silica-bearing minerals.

An attempt was made to correlate the log responses at the upper and lower Eagle Ford interface, as well as internal parasequence boundaries identified by Donovan and Staerker This could be caused by the inability to capture these small events in log response. The likelihood that these parasequence packages exist is high, but remain to be identified and correlated to specific log responses.

This projection is generated from a time-equivalent horizon just above the Eagle Ford. Yellow lines show the extent width of channel described in Figure Faults can be seen north of the channel dark lines. Whole image is unavailable due to proprietary obligations.

Image created in SMT. The paleo-water depth and basin topography situated between the structurally high features of the Edwards and Sligo Reef margins, allowed for more accommodation than distal areas. The thickness variation is due to the bowl shaped feature that formed between the two reefs Figures 15 and Based on well log and seismic data, depth to the Eagle Ford varies from ft to ft subsea along a roughly planar surface that strikes parallel to these reef margins Figure Post-depositional forces- such as erosion of the upper and, in extreme cases, portions of the lower Eagle Ford- were major controls on thickness variation seen in the Hawkville Trough.

In the most extreme case in southwest LaSalle County, the Upper Eagle Ford is entirely missing in two wells and has been replaced by a channel sand unit not previously reported Figure This has been identified as a channel sand based on the gamma ray signatures API and resistivity response 24 ohms using the criteria of Booth et al.

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The Lower Eagle Ford was also partially eroded in these two wells Figure Numerous faults are visible on seismic data Figures 20 and Most of these faults are post-depositional with modest offsets feet Figure A few of the faults are syn-depositional growth faults, indicated by thicker sediment accumulation in the additional accommodation on the downthrown side Figures 18 and Figure 18 shows a thicker LEF section due to a syn-depositional growth fault. It is only present when total thickness exceeds ft. Particularly interesting is an erosional event best captured in LaSalle County. What is interpreted as a channel, referred to herein as the Paleo-Nueces Channel, post-dating Austin Chalk and Anacacho deposition ran through southern LaSalle County Figure 25 this study.

First described by Treadgold as a gravitational slump, further well log and seismic analysis shows that a meandering channel is another possible interpretation. When the amplitude is extracted, after flattening on the Buda horizon, from the surface just above the Eagle Ford yellow line in Figure 22 , a mile wide channel is revealed running through the Hawkville Trough Figure Figure 20 shows high acoustic impedance above the top of Eagle Ford that cannot be correlated through the center of the feature, but is present on either side.

This high acoustic impedance is interpreted in this study as the Austin Chalk formation, and allows a general time relationship to be determined. Proprietary obligations and data availability only allows this feature to be captured within the boundaries of the Hawkville Trough, primarily in LaSalle County although recent seismic analysis shows it extending into McMullen County. Figure 25 shows a horizon that was extracted from a seismic line Figure 22 yellow line projecting its amplitude variations in map view.

The yellow lines in Figure 25 annotate the boundaries of the channel, with the strike and dip direction of the Eagle Ford Formation symbol in red. The white lines to the northeast of the channel are fault systems that propagate throughout LaSalle County, but do not intersect the channel and are thus interpreted as pre-incision deformation. The Paleo-Nueces channel is first observed in southwest LaSalle County running northeast-southwest along bedding strike. Up dip, the channel is not present and the total thickness of the Eagle Ford remains between feet LaS in Figure Down dip, the channel is present, shown by the presence of sand above the Eagle Ford and the noticeably missing section of the upper Eagle Ford entirely and part of the lower Eagle Ford LaS-9 in figure When the channel meanders southeast parallel to Eagle Ford bed dip , A distinct sand body is deposited above the Eagle Ford, and this particular sand body is unique to the area in between the boundaries of the channel Figure Most likely this is a channel and not a slump due to the fact that: 1 gravitational slumps would permeate along bed dip instead of displaying a meandering nature; 2 horizons within and above the Eagle Ford Formation would not be missing, only tilted unless the slump displaced the sediments a significant distance; 3 the strata on either side of the feature are undeformed and present in expected thicknesses; and 4 most importantly there is no explanation as to why a sand body that does not occur stratigraphically in any area of the Eagle Ford Formation is present here, solely within the boundaries of this feature.

Based on the isopach maps, LaSalle was most likely a site of sediment influx as seen in log analysis. Approaching the Edwards reef, a thinner Eagle Ford section is encountered, ultimately affecting internal stratigraphic correlation LaS-3 in Figure An anoxic environment coupled with high organic productivity at the surface would support why there are higher total organic carbon values in this lower member. Also, the anoxic environment caused by the restricted setting between the reef boundaries would allow for a large accumulation and preservation of organic-rich sediments.

Proof for this type of sedimentation could be supported by in-depth analysis of cores. The depositional model for the upper Eagle Ford in the Hawkville Trough is more difficult to decipher due to a more complex network of erosional features along the upper contact. The influence that the Paleo Nueces Channel had on this contact is evident through seismic and well log analysis in southern LaSalle County. Where the channel was cutting sediments above the Eagle Ford along bedding strike, the influence of its erosion on the upper Eagle Ford is largely speculative without a chronostratigraphic reconstruction of this channel.

However, the erosional influence on the upper Eagle Ford is clear where it is completely missing, the unique sand body is deposited above the lower Eagle Ford, and the characteristic coarsening upward nature of the lower Eagle Ford remains intact. This variability is also observed in core data, where the sharp contact contains skeletal lag deposits and rip-up clasts, and the gradational contact only shows minor changes in fossil content and lighter color due to increased limestone content.

Other subdivisions of the Eagle Ford suggested from outcrop studies e. Lock and Peschier, ; Donovan and Staerker, cannot be consistently recognized in the Hawkville Trough because the contrast in properties between lithologies cannot be deciphered in the current log and seismic resolution. Well data documents dramatic decreases in thickness of the UEF over a few miles due to erosion. In the most extreme case in southwest LaSalle County, the UEF is entirely missing in 2 wells and has been replaced by a sand unit not previously reported.

The LEF may have also been partially eroded in these two wells. Based on well log and seismic data, depth to the Eagle Ford varies from ft to ft along a roughly planar surface that strikes parallel to the Edwards and Sligo Reef margins. Numerous faults are visible on seismic data. Most of these faults are postdepositional with modest offsets ft. Wells with bottom hole locations used in this study were drilled into the Buda and corrected to TVD by using known bed dips, length of lateral, and penetration points in order to calculate the true stratigraphic thickness TST.

Formation tops were principally interpreted using the gamma ray log; however, resistivity and density-porosity curves were used to support correlation of wells in close proximity to one another. Isopach maps were generated by log data compiled to show the shape of the total section, as well as upper and lower Eagle Ford. LaS-4 and McM-1 are the type logs for the area. Regional, strike, and dip oriented cross section lines are provided. Those wells with a bottom hole location labeled horizontal above were drilled vertically into the Buda Limestone and corrected for true vertical depth TVD Image created in SMT.

As a whole, the upper section of the Eagle Ford is represented by a generally lower API gamma ray response Figure 8. An examination of the Langtry Member, as described by Donovan and Staerker as a distinctly different stratigraphic unit between the Eagle Ford and Austin Chalk, was explored in well logs in the study area and remains indistinguishable.

The upper and lower units are divided by the K72 sequence boundary Donovan and Staerker, This division is noted by a significant increase in the gamma ray response, and a decrease in resistivity. This unit ranges from feet thick and is dominated by interbedded marls and limestones. These unit distinctions, tops, and bases rely primarily on pattern recognition in the well logs. Images of core from a well in the Hawkville Trough are used to demonstrate the nature of unit change, the unconformable contacts at the top and base of the Eagle Ford, and to explore a possible correlation to log signatures Figure 8 and 9.

These images can be used to either support or disprove the nature of the unconformable contacts and are also used for visual inspection internal unit distinctions. An attempt was made to identify and correlate additional internal units based on log response to corroborate with outcrop studies done by Donovan and Staerker and Lock and Peschier From left to right the most important log curves to this study were the gamma ray, resistivity, and density-porosity curves color of scale bar indicates color of curve used.

Skeletal lag and rip up clasts are common features along this contact Image courtesy of Petrohawk Energy Eagle Ford Consortium. Cross sections based on gamma ray tops through the Hawkville Trough were constructed to highlight the thickness variations in both strike northeast-southwest and dip orientation southeast. PETRA is an integrated application with a common database and interface for project and data management; well log analysis, mapping, cross-sections, seismic integration, production and reservoir analysis, and 3D visualization.

Spatial analysis of three-dimensional 3D seismic data across the Hawkville trough demonstrates the stratigraphic and structural aspects affecting section thickness variations. Seismic horizons, interpreted by geophysicists at Petrohawk Energy Corporation, were used to evaluate the relationships between log depths and their equivalent time-depth relationships. Formation markers picked from wireline logs were correlated to a time-equivalent horizon by making time-depth charts using average velocities to the top of the Eagle Ford Formation. Seismic lines oriented in strike and dip direction of the Eagle Ford Formation were generated.

These lines highlight the erosional and structural attributes immediately above and below the Eagle Ford Formation effecting thickness variation. An amplitude map of a horizon directly above the Eagle Ford Formation was generated from 3D seismic. This was used to support observations made in 3D seismic, as well as well log data in southwest LaSalle County. Due to proprietary obligations, exact locations of 3D seismic lines are withheld, and only general geographic orientation and scales within the county are described.

The most regionally consistent marker for the Eagle Ford Formation is the basal unconformity between the Eagle Ford Formation and the underlying Buda Limestone. The transition between the Eagle Ford and Buda Limestone is indicated by abrupt changes in rock properties, which made this surface easily correlatable across the region.

The conformable contact between the lower and the upper members of the Eagle Ford Formation is reliably based on a drastic increase in the gamma ray API Figure 8. Across the Hawkville trough, this marker is one of the few that can be consistently correlated. The character of the gamma increase differs from well to well, but occurs roughly in the middle of the formation. The resistivity and density-porosity logs proved less helpful for correlation purposes because of the variation of fluids present and porosity values.

There was no distinct change in formation resistivity and porosity between the upper and lower units. The top of Eagle Ford is the third correlative marker across the Hawkville trough that can be recognized with confidence based on gamma ray and resistivity response. However, the section at the top of the Eagle Ford was removed post-deposition in parts of the field, causing some uncertainty.

Donovan and Staerker identified a transitional unit Langtry Member above the Eagle Ford that was not consistently identified within the study area. Instead, this transitional unit was categorized as the Upper Eagle Ford. The transition from the overlying Austin Chalk and Eagle Ford is variably expressed in log analysis. However, thickness across the mile long trough varies greatly over short lateral distances. From LaS-9 to LaS10 4.

A structure map based off of tops gathered from well data of the Eagle Ford shows a southeasterly dip direction Figure Strike and dip oriented cross sections, as well as a regional cross section across the Hawkville Trough highlight those variations in separate units, as well as overall thickness Figures The red line is the interface between the upper and lower Eagle Ford members. The axis of the trough is closer to the Edwards Reef than the Sligo Reef.

The sand body is clearly recognized in log response by a API gamma response and ohm resistivity, and will be discussed further in the discussion section Booth et al. The UEF thins rapidly to roughly half its maximum thickness moving away from the axis Figure There is also thinning to the northeast in McMullen County Figure The axis is closer to the Edwards reef than the Sligo Reef. It reaches its maximum thickness in LaS-1 at ft Table 1. Thinning is drastic as you move away from the center of the axis.

This thinning is due to a combination of erosion along the upper boundary, as well as additional accommodation associated with growth faults. Well numbers increase from west to east by county. The entire section is trough shaped with an axis roughly parallel to bedding strike, and shows drastic thinning within miles of the axis. Values are based primarily from well data, and seismic was also used to fill in gaps between wells with known values. Similar to the upper and total section, this unit is trough-shaped and the axis of the trough thins laterally from the center.

Faults were picked using seismic data. There is extensive faulting in McMullen County. Most of the faults post-date deposition of the Eagle Ford Formation, with the exception of a few growth faults in McMullen County that contribute to thickness and section variation over short lateral distances. Map created in SMT Cross-section is hung on the top of Eagle Ford and vertical axis is shown with black line in feet. Black line indicates vertical axis in feet cross section created in Petra, map image created in SMT. The 3D seismic in Hawkville field was shot and processed over the course of several years and broken up into phases.

The Patron Grande survey covers Hawkville Field and encompasses approximately square miles www. The 3D data demonstrates a complex network of faults and erosional features throughout the Hawkville Tough Figures 14, 20, and The Eagle Ford and Buda Formations were picked based on tops seen while drilling, and then tied into the seismic, top for top personal communication with Marie Henry-Geophysicist, Petrohawk The method most commonly used here is a Time Depth Chart, which is used to convert TVD values into time so the wellbore is plotted in seismic.

The Buda Formation has a high velocity and density, making it the most reliable top that can be picked in the Hawkville trough; this yields high acoustic impedance. Acoustic impedance indicates how much sound pressure is generated by the vibration of molecules in a particular medium at a given frequency; locally, this shows up as a strong peak personal communication Jarrett Pierce, Geophysicist Figure 20 and In Figure 20 highlighted in purple , an extra peak can be seen on the left side of the figure between the top of Eagle Ford and the top of Buda. In seismic data this peak only occurs when total thickness reaches greater than feet.

Moving towards the right side of the figure, this strong peak disappears and the upper Eagle Ford becomes truncated.

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Figure 21, from McMullen County, demonstrates the additional accommodation seen on the downthrown side of growth faults. This image shows the appearance of the strong peak, discussed above, that occurs when total thickness is greater than feet. This thickness continues to increase down dip as another growth fault is encountered. The total thickness Figure 22 is a seismic cross section that was generated by flattening the data on the Buda Horizon and observing the horizon just above the Eagle Ford showing drastic lateral thinning across the profile.

Amplitude extraction maps, or time slices, taken from 3D seismic volumes reveal high-resolution dispersal patterns and associated systems tracts on geologic time surfaces Li, Flattening was achieved through SMTs seismic module and subtracted the influence of regional dip in order to properly image the feature seen above solid yellow line in Figure The purpose of a structure-removed time slice is to be able to image amplitude variations in map view affecting a greater regional extent that occurred at or near a geologic time-equivalent horizon.

There is minor faulting associated with section thickness. From northwest to southeast the thickness of the Eagle Ford changes from thick to thin as noted where the extra peak is present. The Channel Incision is evident on this section of 3D data. Field of view for figures are approximately 7 miles.

Vertical axis is recorded in time roughly 0. Note additional accommodation on downthrown side of growth faults. The complex structural framework in McMullen County is the main contributor to thickness variations within the Eagle Ford Formation. Figure Northwest-southeast seismic screen shot that shows flattening on the Buda Limestone blue line and generating the time slice through the horizon above the Eagle Ford Formation in southeast LaSalle County yellow line. This image shows that in less than 5 miles the Eagle Ford thins by feet. In some areas of the Hawkville Trough the contact is found to be abrupt Figure 23 , and in other areas it is more gradational Figure However, it is accepted that the two formations are separated by a major unconformity and K72 sequence boundary Petrohawk, ; Donovan and Staerker, The rip-up clasts, skeletal limestones, and soft sediment deformation features indicates more proximal facies Petrohawk, The proximal facies had lower TOC values and higher amounts of silica-bearing minerals.

An attempt was made to correlate the log responses at the upper and lower Eagle Ford interface, as well as internal parasequence boundaries identified by Donovan and Staerker This could be caused by the inability to capture these small events in log response. The likelihood that these parasequence packages exist is high, but remain to be identified and correlated to specific log responses. This projection is generated from a time-equivalent horizon just above the Eagle Ford. Yellow lines show the extent width of channel described in Figure Faults can be seen north of the channel dark lines.

Whole image is unavailable due to proprietary obligations. Image created in SMT. The paleo-water depth and basin topography situated between the structurally high features of the Edwards and Sligo Reef margins, allowed for more accommodation than distal areas. The thickness variation is due to the bowl shaped feature that formed between the two reefs Figures 15 and Based on well log and seismic data, depth to the Eagle Ford varies from ft to ft subsea along a roughly planar surface that strikes parallel to these reef margins Figure Post-depositional forces- such as erosion of the upper and, in extreme cases, portions of the lower Eagle Ford- were major controls on thickness variation seen in the Hawkville Trough.

In the most extreme case in southwest LaSalle County, the Upper Eagle Ford is entirely missing in two wells and has been replaced by a channel sand unit not previously reported Figure This has been identified as a channel sand based on the gamma ray signatures API and resistivity response 24 ohms using the criteria of Booth et al.

The Lower Eagle Ford was also partially eroded in these two wells Figure Numerous faults are visible on seismic data Figures 20 and Most of these faults are post-depositional with modest offsets feet Figure A few of the faults are syn-depositional growth faults, indicated by thicker sediment accumulation in the additional accommodation on the downthrown side Figures 18 and Figure 18 shows a thicker LEF section due to a syn-depositional growth fault.

It is only present when total thickness exceeds ft. Particularly interesting is an erosional event best captured in LaSalle County. What is interpreted as a channel, referred to herein as the Paleo-Nueces Channel, post-dating Austin Chalk and Anacacho deposition ran through southern LaSalle County Figure 25 this study.


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First described by Treadgold as a gravitational slump, further well log and seismic analysis shows that a meandering channel is another possible interpretation. When the amplitude is extracted, after flattening on the Buda horizon, from the surface just above the Eagle Ford yellow line in Figure 22 , a mile wide channel is revealed running through the Hawkville Trough Figure Figure 20 shows high acoustic impedance above the top of Eagle Ford that cannot be correlated through the center of the feature, but is present on either side.

This high acoustic impedance is interpreted in this study as the Austin Chalk formation, and allows a general time relationship to be determined. Andrew as he appears in the Anglo-Saxon literary tradition across a variety of genres including historical, exegetical, calendrical, martyrological, liturgical, devotional and apocryphal narrative or verse. Incorporating evidence from both Anglo-Latin and Old English traditions, the study offers a well-rounded examination of the twelve apostles as they were venerated collectively and the first thorough survey of an apostle cult in the Anglo-Saxon Period.

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